In this lesson we are going to learn how to create our own starter templates for Git. For our example we’ll change the default branch name from `master` to `main`.
In this lesson we are going to learn how to create our own starter templates for Git. For our example we’ll change the default branch name from
Templates in Git are the starting files and settings for all new Git repositories. Any files not starting with a dot (hidden files) will be copied to the new Git repository upon initialization.
These template files are stored in a global system location and unless you tell Git otherwise it will use this location as the source for all new Git repositories. When we tell Git to use a different location it will use those files isntead. We’ll edit one of those files to change the default branch name.
But first we need to find the templates.
The template files are stored inside of the
git-core directory in your local Git installation. However, where Git is installed and stored will depend on your installation of Git.
You’d think if we run:
That we would get the location. But that’s not true: this is the location of the Git binary that is run, not the supporting files. It took me a little time to find mine but I was able to located them using the
If you don’t know where the templates directory is located on your own system, you can try to find
git-core (on macOS or Linux):
find / -name git-core
find command isn’t fast but it’s pretty thorough. For my installation of macOS Catalina using the default system Git that is installed by the developer Command Line Tools, the Git templates are located here:
Your location may be different depending on how you have Git installed. The standard installation for Git is
/usr/share/git-core/templates but as you can see mine is slightly different and OS-specific.
We don’t want to alter the system version of these templates but instead make our own copy. To be sure we don’t mess anything up, we’ll copy the entire templates directory to our user directory.
First, we’ll create the destination directory for the user copy of the templates. You can put it anywhere you want, including up the tree further but I like to store it with my user. So, to that end, I’ll create a directory in my user directory called
And then we’re ready to copy the core files into our user directory:
cp -a /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/share/git-core/templates ~/git-templates
-a option is set to preserve structure and attributes of the files and copy recursively. It’s a shorthand option instead of
Next we’re going to create a
HEAD file in our templates directory and populate it with the default name of our branch.
echo a setting into it. Git will create the
HEAD file if it doesn’t exist. When we create a new project it will copy this file along with the rest of the files. In doing this we’re telling Git to create the first branch (a ref) and call it
echo 'ref: refs/heads/main' > ~/git-templates/HEAD
(Use your own path for the location of your templates directory.)
Now that we have the templates code copied over and customized, we need to tell Git to use it when it initializes a new repository. The easiest way to do this is to just set the settings using the
git config command. This sets whatever you tell it to either the project or global config file. The global config file is typically in your user directory, which is what we want to use:
git config --global init.templateDir ~/git-templates
We specify it as a global setting, tell it the setting to set and then the location to write for that setting.
If we take a peek at the config file we should see it in there.
And we should see it at the bottom of the config file:
[init] templateDir = /Users/ryan/git-templates
Initalizing a new repository that uses the new settings isn’t any different than before. But now, instead of using the default templates location, Git is going to use our custom location in our user directory. Because of that Git will also create the initial branch called
main instead of
master because of what we specified in the
Let’s try it out.
cd ~/training git init git-templates-test
This will will initialize a new repository in the
git template-test directory (which it’ll also create for us).
ryan@MPB training $ git init git-templates-test Reinitialized existing Git repository in /Users/ryan/training/git-templates-test/.git/
Now if we run
git status we should see the branch listed:
ryan@MPB git-templates-test $ git status On branch main No commits yet nothing to commit (create/copy files and use "git add" to track)
Let’s add and commit a file:
touch README.md git add README.md git commit -m "adding readme" [main (root-commit) 0e4e519] adding readme 1 file changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) create mode 100644 README.md
Now if we run
git status we will see the clean branch again. And, if we run
git branch we’ll see our main branch listed:
ryan@MPB git-templates-test (main)$ git branch * main
And, there we have it. We’ve now changed the default branch name of our Git repository from